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Causes and Treatment of Hoarseness
October 28, 2023

Dr. ozbarsut

There are three causes of hoarseness;

1.Vocal Nodules

These lesions are located in the upper layer of the vocal cord and usually involve 2 opposite vocal cords. While it is common in boys in childhood, it occurs more frequently in women in adulthood.

Poor use of the voice, excessive tension in the vocal cord muscles due to mental tensions are some of the reasons. It is usually seen more frequently in people who earn their living with their voice such as teachers, telephone operators, imams, etc. It is most commonly seen in the 1 upper part junction of the vocal cord, which shows vibration.


It can be easily detected on endoscopic examination.


Speech therapy is the most important form of treatment. Improvement is monitored after a period of 2-3 months and if adequate results are not obtained, it is operated with microsurgery and voice therapy is continued.

2.Vocal polyps

It is caused by prolonged contact of the vocal cord with irritants combined with poor use of the voice. Factors such as smoking, prolonged coughing and throat clearing, reflux are often included in the patient’s history.

Since they are usually stemmed lesions, short-term improvements in the voice may be seen due to the up and down movement of the polyp. They are not likely to return to malignancy.


The treatment is surgical. Successful results can be obtained with microsurgery. The patient is advised to stay away from irritants.

3.Vocal Cysts

It is formed by duct obstruction of the glands under the vocal cord epithelium. It may be difficult to distinguish from vocal nodules at times.


The cystic structure is surgically removed.